Design Thinking, What a Concept?

It’s sort of funny, we’ve been legitimized by higher ed and the business process folks out there.  It turns out that all this time, while we’ve been busily working away at our collections and getting our work done, what we have really been doing is engaging in ‘design thinking’.

Oddly, we’ve been doing it all this time, but we just didn’t have a fancy term for the way we approach our work other than ‘design’. But ‘design’ isn’t worth $35,000 a month for a consultant, so now we have ‘design thinking’.

Design thinking (as opposed to plain old design) is the ability to combine empathy for the context of a problem, apply creativity to generating solutions, and analyzing and choosing solutions within context.  In design speak, that means we understand our marketplace, we understand our assignment (design little girl’s mittens), we go out and start thumbnailing design ideas, and then we work with our design director to choose designs we think most likely to sell and that our factories can be produce. We’ve been doing ‘design thinking’ the time.

The premise behind design thinking is that by knowing about the process and the methods that we as designers use to ideate (e.g., come up with our ideas), and by understanding how we approach problems to try to solve them, other individuals and businesses will be better able to connect with and invigorate their ideation processes in order to take innovation to a higher level. Which is kind of cool, that people have caught on to the fact designers think about the world differently.

The hope amongst the business people is to create a competitive advantage in today’s global economy.

So now educators are trying to teach non-practitioners to think like we do.

Perhaps the suits are going about it all wrong, and instead of trying to teach their accountants to think like we do, maybe, just maybe, they should go to the source, and convene groups of designers from all the disciplines to brainstorming weekends. We’re used to designing on cycles, and we’re used to designing to challenges. Most of our ideas would be unworkable (just like they are now) but I would bet that one or a few compelling and applicable answers would be produced.

But I’d argue that Design Thinking would be better applied to things that are globally significant to all of us. Things like climate change, pollution, child labor, slavery, human rights abuses, and even, dare I say it, war? I bet we could come up to some really creative solutions to some of these issues facing us. After all, we already understand that our design decisions have consequences. When we call for hand beading on a sweater, we know that little tiny fingers will be called in to put those beads in place.

I have to wonder if as Design Thinking is being taught, if consequences are taught along with the process methodology?



When Did 3D Printing Become the New Jargon Term?

Somewhere in the last five years, 3D printing has become the hot new jargon term. And now every English major out there who wants to build a following is flinging the term about with mad abandon and no real understanding that not every 3-dimensional object out there is created with 3D printing.

I was first exposed to the concept of 3D printing at an exhibit at the FIT museum space (~2004?). They had just mounted an exhibit about new designers coming out of Amsterdam (an aside here – I’m not sure what all those designers in the Netherlands are smoking but their creativity is astonishing!).  The exhibit included a number of really interesting artifacts including furniture and jewelry created through a process called ‘laser sintering‘. One piece in particular made a big impact on me; it was a necklace that had been created in situ inside its carrying case.

Laser sintering is a type of manufacturing that uses laser energy passing through a container of special powdered substrate. A special software program creates a design file of ‘layers’ of the desired 3D object. The design file layers are the guides for the laser beam to create the 3D object.

Being naturally curious I loved the whole idea, but laser sintering devices were certainly not cheap and not common. Even during my most recent degree program at FIT, where I studied accessories design, we did not have access to any sort of 3D printers. They were just too expensive.

Moving ahead to 2008, and a nifty small business called Desktop Factory. Desktop Factory had a functional prototype of a true desktop sized 3D printer. It had a speed of about 1 cubic inch/1-3 hours, and a consumable cost of $1/cubic inch. They were planning to launch it at $4,995/unit. Unfortunately, 2008 was a wintery year for venture capital, Desktop Factory was unable to close funding (they came so close, so many times, but the venture capitalists out there, being the visionary sorts they are, rolled a one. Yes, suits, I’m talking to you.) and ultimately this technology was sold to another company.

Fast forward to February 2010, Fashion Bar Camp, and the guys from MakerBot were demoing a Thing-O-Matic. (I think it was this one shown in Wiki, in fact). Fascinating? You bet. Useful to John Q. Public, not so much, unless you were also into DIY making. MakerBot was sold as a kit, for a little under $1,000. You had the ultimate DIY project to create your very own 3D printer.  I thought about getting one (hey, I’m a technical designer. I make stuff all the time. How hard could it be, really?) but ultimately that $1,000 price tag for a bunch of parts put me off. Still, it was intriguing enough that they sold 3,500 units. It was also interesting that initial cost and consumable costs were starting to converge to cheap.

Two and a half years later, ‘suddenly’ there’s a $2,500 desktop printer out there; costs of consumables are plummeting, and everyone is on the 3D bandwagon. It’s gotten so bad that I actually ran across a blog post claiming that biotechnology used to create muscle fibers was ‘3D printing of steak’.

So let’s set the record straight here. 3D printing is not ‘everything that uses a machine that ends up with a 3 dimensional product.’ It’s quite specific:

Additive manufacturing (AM) also known as 3D printing is defined by ASTM as the “process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies, such as traditional machining. Synonyms include additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive layer manufacturing, layer manufacturing, and freeform fabrication“.

I did not make up this definition. It’s the ASTM International’s (American Society for Testing and Materials).

If you played very fast and loose with all of the words in the definition, and stretched the actual meaning to the breaking point, you could conceivably say that all forms of making stuff are ‘3D Printing.’ I mean, when I make samples, it is technically accurate to say I take layers of materials and join them together in a process that results in a 3D object.  But I really think it would be much too hard a stretch to say that creating a prototype sample with my sewing machine is 3D printing, even if every step of the process up to actually stitching the sample has been touched by technology. (And yes, I do start from a 3D model and end up with a 3D model).

Given my science background (at the University of Michigan I doubled-majored in scientific illustration and botanical biotechnology back when Murashige-Skoog was the hot new jargon term) I think it’s stretching to call culturing muscle fiber in vitro ‘3D printing’.

There’s also a ton of other crap being dumped into the 3D bin, because 3D printing is the latest jargon. Unfortunately, as any good technical designer can tell you, methodology matters, materials matter, and so does technique. Making sure you have the right words to describe how you want something made is as important as the sketch you send along, or you get back a sample that is the factory’s best guess.

This is not to say that companies out there aren’t using 3D printing. Nike, Adidas and UnderArmour are companies that are all known for their high standards in development. Increasingly it seems that fashion designers are going to need to take their ability to think in 3D and use it to develop their design files in 3D packages so we can send them to 3D printers (which will be things, not people).

So let’s get it right with 3D printing, and not just use it as a jargon term. It means something a lot more specific than that.

Fashion Research Institute Announces Science Sim Land Grant Program Awardees

New York, NY November 1, 2011 – Fashion Research Institute Announces Science Sim Land Grant Program Awardees

Fashion Research Institute has been collaborating with Intel Labs since 2009, helping to push the limits of content development, and overseeing the Science Sim Land Grant Program. The program consists of awards of campuses of four ‘supersized’ 3D volumes called regions, which can support 100,000 primitive units. These campuses are awarded for a six-month period to educators, scientists, and researchers who wish to explore using OpenSim for their work, and who need the power and control of their projects that a campus provides them.  The campuses are provided for nine months beginning September 1, 2011 and ending June 30, 2012.

We are pleased to share the 2011-2012 awardees, in alphabetical order.

The Abyss Observatory ( The Abyss Observatory is a museum of earth science, undersea technology and also Sense of Wonder for the mysteries of Earth & Life in 3D virtual world, established mainly by Japan and US volunteers, supported by SciLands, NOAA, JAMSTEC, Open University UK and Science Circle.

“Earth system science research fields are spread world-wide and far from human habitation.  To gain a better understanding of global issues, visualization in immersive virtual world is powerful tool.  Our students can develop observation methods of virtual environment phenomena or law of physics easily, cost-effectively and safely,”says Hajime Nishimura (JAMSTEC,

The Cyprus University of Technology Chrysanthos Voutounos is a doctoral student at the Department of Multimedia and Graphic Arts in Cyprus. His research work negotiates the design of serious virtual and multimedia applications that deal with the presentation and preservation of Byzantine heritage. The Byzantine heritage of Cyprus is globally known and many monuments on the island are included in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List, like the monastery and the museum of St. John Lampadistis which Chrysanthos aims to design in ScienceSim as part of his research.

My main research objective is to design and evaluate a virtual museum of Byzantine art applying methods that will enable a cross-cultural and cross-aesthetic mediation of Byzantine Aesthetics; providing a meaningful mediation of Byzantine artifacts and a spiritual experience to users.” Said Chrysanthos Voutounos.  “The opportunity given to implement this work on ScienceSim ensures the serious concept of a virtual heritage project; ScienceSim platform hosts a unique of its kind research on virtual worlds (1000 avatars on a region, security of digital content and other achievements). Many thanks to Intel Labs and the Fashion Research Institute for their support!

The EdLab Group Foundation ( ) Hypatia World is supporting and expanding the reach of the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) in a 3D virtual environment. Hypatia World provides a safe space for the 5.3 million girls in the NGCP network to access online activities and participate in collaborative projects. The NGCP is committed to informing and motivating girls to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). NGCP currently supports 21 Collaboratives, serving 31 states to provide support and local resources to STEM practitioners. Hypatia World will host the first 3D virtual Collaborative, providing an online place for the girls and their mentors to interact and participate in STEM activities and events. Through collaborative relationships with partners such as NASA, quality content will assured.

Project Manager, Lindy Orwin, explained, “Hypatia World will provide opportunities for girls to access online mentors and 3D content expanding the opportunities for networking and support for girls interested in STEM and keeping them interested in STEM.”

The Honor Engine ( The Honor Engine has created a customizable set of tools built for quest based learning and game development into the virtual world.  The Honor Engine Toolset allows educators, content developers and game designers complete control over their content . The goals of The Honor Engine are to explore the potential uses of quest based learning in education for children and for the workforce. Already well established in SL as the HONOR Roleplay System, the Honor Engine is now expanding their toolset into OpenSim virtual worlds.

Our key focus in moving The Honor Engine into the ScienceSim is to provide a toolset for educators and other creators to scale their interactive content with simple interfaces, quick content creation and adaptation and easy to access metrics to help them define success.”   Bill Jobes, owner and creator of The Honor Engine.  “Quest-based learning that is teacher planned and driven is what the Honor Engine provides. Teachers will be completely free to set up learning scenarios to suit their students  needs. The students play to learn and learn as they play. Classrooms full of students can work together in the virtual world increasing their content knowledge, their literacy skills, and their 21st century skills, all of which will be vital to their success throughout the rest of their lives.

The Oregon L5 Society( Oregon L5 Society ( ORL5) is using some of their 25 years of research into using planetary caves as centers of human activity on the other worlds of the Solar System as models in virtual worlds. These concepts can be explored in ScienceSim, where ORL5 is creating VW lunar lavatube cave bases and settlements, and similar asteroidal and Mars bases.

These are conceptual models of how such human activity can settle the Solar System in real life.

We use these virtual world projects to contact other researchers, educate the public about how human spaceflight can become more widely affordable, and model specific projects we can then promote to the Space Research community more effectively.” says Tom Billings (Oregon L5 Society Representative).

Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA) Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA) ( is the first professional scientific organization based in virtual worlds.  The goals of MICA are to explore the potential uses of immersive VR as a scientific and scholarly platform.  Already well established in SL, MICA is now expanding their activities into OpenSim worlds.

Our key research goal is to develop novel techniques and applications for immersive, collaborative data visualization,” says the MICA Director George Djorgovski, a professor at Caltech.  “Scalability is important for massive data sets, and that is one of the main reasons we are in ScienceSim.”  He adds, “Effective visualization of complex, multi- dimensional data is emerging as one of the key challenges for the data- driven science in the 21st century.  As we continue to move our work and collaborations into cyberspace, immersive VR may become a fundamental platform for scientific research.

Preferred Family Healthcare ( Preferred Family Healthcare has been delivering counseling services in virtual worldspace for the past three years and it is on the forward edge of organizations using OpenSim and Jibe/Unity for these purposes. PFH will continue to explore the potential for delivering mental health and substance use disorder services to clients who experience accessibility challenges due to distance, time, travel, physical handicap, social phobias and other complications.

PFH intends to continue to be a leading innovator of technology utilization to make accessible behavioral health interventions available to all who need them,” notes Dick Dillon, Senior VP at Preferred Family Healthcare. “Challenges which have existed for decades are being resolved by the smart application of global connectivity tools. We believe in the potential of virtual world-based service delivery systems, and several pilot projects are already showing excellent results for client retention and participation, with treatment outcomes as good or better than traditional methods.”

Science Circle. The Science Circle is an alliance of Scientists from various disciplines dedicated to connect scientist and students worldwide. We use digital mediums like Second Life® to hold seminars and we are starting in 2011 with various courses for our student group.

“The Science Circle wants to offer our members the possibility to discover OpenSim. Like MICA we are convinced that 3d platforms based on OpenSim are a great tool to offer education. The Science Sim Land Grant program is a great initiative that enables us to do that,” says Agustin Martin on behalf of the Science Circle.

BIO-SE project (Biological Interactive Objects for Science Education)The goal of the BIO-SE Project is to create interactive learning modules targeted to the high school or college freshman biology curriculum. Its primary aim is to have its learning modules be instructive but also designed for first-time users of virtual worlds. Lesson planning and instructor resources will be created as well but do not necessarily require faculty to be conversant with using virtual worlds. The core lessons all come from biologists who have multiple years of experience teaching in Second Life and developing course content there.


About Fashion Research Institute, Inc.: FRI is at the forefront of developing innovative design & merchandising solutions for the apparel industry.  They research and develop products and systems for the fashion industry that sweepingly address wasteful business and production practices.

Science Sim is part of an evolution toward online 3D experiences that look, act and feel real. Sometimes dubbed the “3D internet,” Intel Labs refers to this technology trend as immersive connected experiences, or ICE. ScienceSim is differentiated from most virtual world environments by its open source architecture. ScienceSim leverages open source building blocks (installation utilities, management tools, client viewers, etc.) based on OpenSimulator (OpenSim) software.

Fashion Research Institute Oversees a Third Round of the Science Sim Land Grant Program with Intel Labs

New York, NY August 8, 2011 – Fashion Research Institute Oversees a Third Round of the Science Sim Land Grant Program with Intel Labs

Fashion Research Institute is pleased to announce the third round of OpenSim region grants in the ScienceSim grid. We will administrate the land program through our research collaboration with Intel Labs.

We’ve been provided with a set of regions running on hardware that can support 45,000-100,000  primitive objects with up to 1,000 concurrent users per region.  The regions will be awarded for a nine-month period beginning September 1, 2011 and running to June 30, 2012 to educators, scientists, and researchers who wish to bring their programs into an immersive collaborative environment.

There are no hidden charges or costs to this program other than what a selected organization is expected to need for the transfer and development of their programs, and which they negotiate with their service providers.  There is no financial assistance available for this process.  We can accept and transfer existing OAR files into ScienceSim.

Commercial organizations and consultants are not eligible to apply for these regions. Recipients must sign a formal legal agreement with Fashion Research Institute for use of these OpenSim regions. This agreement includes clauses stating that the recipient organization will respect the  existing Term of Service, End User licensing Agreement, Region Covenant, and Content Licenses of the ScienceSim grid.

The Fine Print

Each accepted organization will receive a 4-region, 2×2 ‘campus’ from September 1, 2011-June 30, 2012. Organizations must appoint a single user, who will receive estate manager privileges on this campus.

Campus assignees have full land right privileges.  Regions must remain open to common access to enable visitors to freely move around and visit.

Assigned campuses must be built on within three weeks of assignment.  Land which is not improved within four weeks of assignment will be reclaimed, and any objects placed in the region will be returned to the land assignee.

A content library of premium content is provided to all participants on ScienceSim.  Additional content is provided as well.  This content may not be removed from ScienceSim. Suspect pirated content brought into ScienceSim will be removed immediately. All content provided for ScienceSim users is PG-rated.

A complete OpenSim orientation gateway which has been successfully used with more than 65,000 new users is provided for the use of land grant recipients and their program users. A scripting lab is provided for recipients to learn how to develop OS scripts. Additionally, there are meeting, classroom, and sandbox spaces provided throughout the common space of the grid in the physics and math plazas which land grant recipients may freely use.

Expected Code of Behavior:

ScienceSim serves a population of educators, researchers and scientists.  Land grant recipients are expected to register with their real names and to manage their programs appropriately.

All users are expected to behave with decorum and respect to others to support this collaborative, interdisciplinary working environment.  Services are provided in English only.  All users who enter and use this grid are expected to behave and dress in a manner appropriate to a corporate or academic setting.  All users are expected to respect others’ beliefs; no solicitation, proselytization, foul language or harassment of any sort is allowed here.  Clothing is mandatory – this means at minimum, shirt and trousers that meets typical community decency standards.

Land grants are provided with an expectation that users will have sufficient expertise to develop their own regions.  There are weekly user meetings at which user experiences can and should be reported, as well as a mailing list where feedback is encouraged.  Lastly, there is a weekly governance meeting at which any conflicts will be arbitrated.


To participate in this land grant program, please send e-mail to with your name, your organization, and 2-3 sentence description of the project you’d like to explore in this collaborative environment.  The program has rolling admissions and we will accept applications until we have assigned all campuses.

Past Awardees

Previous awardees are eligible to apply for this program.  Previous recipients have included the Abyss Observatory, the IDIA Lab, ScienceCircle, Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics, and Utah State University.


About Fashion Research Institute, Inc.: FRI is at the forefront of developing innovative design & merchandising solutions for the apparel industry.  They research and develop products and systems for the fashion industry that sweepingly address wasteful business and production practices.

Science Sim is part of an evolution toward online 3D experiences that look, act and feel real. Sometimes dubbed the “3D internet,” Intel Labs refers to this technology trend as immersive connected experiences, or ICE. ScienceSim is differentiated from most virtual world environments by its open source architecture. ScienceSim leverages open source building blocks (installation utilities, management tools, client viewers, etc.) based on OpenSimulator (OpenSim) software.

Fashion Research Institute announces publication of Portfolio Design for Accessories Designers by Shenlei E. Winkler

Portfolio Design for the Accessories Designer

A good portfolio is critical to obtaining a job as a designer in the fashion industry.  But after working with student interns, author Shenlei Winkler realized that the step-by-step process of putting together a solid job-winning portfolio is not something that most portfolio classes cover.   Now more than ever, a good design portfolio is critical to getting that important first job. Young designers need a solid design portfolio, but knowing how to put that important document together may seem overwhelming.

Enter  Portfolio Design for Accessories Designers.   This new book provides insights and expertise of an industry insider to help the recent or soon-to-be-graduated designer develop their oh-so-important design portfolio.  Portfolio Design for Accessories Designers is specifically written for accessories designers, who have different needs in developing their portfolios than do apparel designers.

The only book of its kind, Portfolio Design for the Accessories Designer has been in development for more than 6 years.  While written for the senior design student and the new design graduate, fashion design school applicants will also find the advice in this book helpful in creating their design application portfolio.

Portfolio Design for the Accessories Designer incorporates industry know-how and technical expertise in a simple, easy-to-read format.  Using examples drawn from a successful accessory designer’s portfolio, this book explains comprehensively what it takes to have a professional, job-winning portfolio. The process of developing collections and visual stories for inclusion in a good portfolio is exhaustively covered.

Lavishly illustrated with actual accessories collections, the author explains why each collection works (or doesn’t work) in a successful portfolio.  These ‘insider secrets’ are exactly the things you need to successfully develop and show your design portfolio to potential employers and design schools, and any place you need to be able to demonstrate your design skills to maximum effect.

Portfolio Design for the Accessories Designer is 230 pages long and includes 12 full-color accessories design collections, along with technical specification, orthogonal sketches, trim and print examples.  Available on Amazon, Portfolio Design for the Accessories Designer will teach the reader how to create knock-their-socks-off accessories design portfolios that help win jobs, awards, and much more.


About Fashion Research Institute, Inc.: The Fashion Research Institute is at the forefront of developing innovative design & merchandising solutions for the apparel industry.  They research and develop products and systems for the fashion industry that sweepingly address wasteful business and production practices. Shenlei Winkler’s work spans both couture and mass-market design and development for the real life apparel industry. A successful designer, her lifetime sales of her real life apparel designs have now reached more than $70 million USD, with more than 25 million-dollar styles in her portfolio. Her couture work has appeared extensively on stage and movie screen.

Content, Copyright, and Fashionably Dressed (?) Cartoon Animals

This article in the NY Times was a nice segue into editing what we hope is the last draft of the Legal Primer for Content Creators in Virtual Worlds.

Google has an interesting approach to copyright offenders: they make them ‘go to school’.  We would question, though, whether a 4 1/2 minute video and 4-question multiple choice (guess) quiz will really deter offenders.  We appreciate the fact that it may, perhaps, be possible that someone somewhere may not realize that if they didn’t make the cool content they want to share they are probably infringing someone’s copyright. But that seems unlikely in today’s interconnected world of sophisticated content consumers.

It is interesting that Google has decided to soft pedal their enforcement efforts by giving offenders what amounts to a one-time wrist slap for the ignorant.

When we were drafting, and then reviewing, the Legal Primer, we had a fair bit of discussion about how to deliver the information at the right level.  We’re still discussing whether or not it is as accessible as it should be for an audience of visual thinkers.  The term accessible, for uninitiated, can often mean dumbed down.

Since we’re writing about what is inherently a complicated topic, and a topic which is usually discussed in a great deal of dry, boring, legal jargon, we’ve been challenged to somehow deliver this information in a way that we hope won’t make our readership bleed from the ears, but without diluting the value of the information by dumbing it down.

As the primary drafter of this document, we are taking the approach that our audience deserves a more intelligent document than YouTube’s Copyright School, because we think our audience is smart enough to manage to read a document that is short on cute cartoon animals and long on words and weighty concepts.  There isn’t a video (and no plans for one) and the text is a heck of a lot longer than a single above-the-fold web questionnaire.

Of course, given that the focus is content in OpenSim and SecondLife, perhaps we could illustrate it with an adorable tiny avatar.

Thinks for a minute…


Richard Beard, Historian, Joins Fashion Research as Gettysburg Fellow

New York, NY March 26, 2011 – Richard Beard, Historian, Joins Fashion Research Institute as Gettysburg Fellow

Fashion Research Institute CEO, Shenlei Winkler, announces that historian Dr. Richard Beard has joined the FRI team as Gettysburg Fellow with the Fashion Research Foundation, a nonprofit affiliate of FRI. Dr. Beard is a historian and administrator who has held senior leadership positions in several of the nation’s most noteworthy history museums, including the Museum of the City of New York, the Atlanta History Center, the New-York Historical Society, and the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum.

His career, characterized by a commitment to vibrant exhibitions and public programming, has included the development of major exhibitions on the American Civil War and Abraham Lincoln.  Dr. Beard publishes regularly on historical topics as well as matters related to the museum profession.  Recent publications include “The Legacy of the Civil War,” a co-authored essay for the National Park Service’s official Sesquicentennial handbook The Civil War Remembered and “From Civil War to Civil Rights: The Opportunities of the Civil War Sesquicentennial,” a forthcoming article to appear in History News.

Dr. Beard is currently part of the project team developing a national exhibition on freedom and slavery, the volunteer coordinator for the Civil War Sesquicentennial for the American Association for State and Local History.

“I am very excited to be involved in the initial stages of developing what promises to be an incredible on-line resource for any and everyone interested in the Civil War.  As more and more Americans turn to the Web for their history, the development of Virtual Gettysburg could not come at a better moment.  The upcoming commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War promises to engage millions of Americans with the three-day battle in the small Pennsylvania town of Gettyburg, an event that did much to determine the war’s outcome.” says Beard.

”We are excited about having Dr. Beard join the Fashion Research Team.” says Shenlei Winkler, CEO of the Fashion Research Institute. “We think his wealth of knowledge about the American Civil War and expertise in producing substantive public programming will provide tremendous insights into the Gettysburg Redux project, and his input and guidance will help ensure that the project is developed with  historical accuracy.”


Fashion Research Institute has been leading the effort to push the use of virtual immersive environments (virtual worlds) for the purpose of training, development and education.  Gettysburg Redux is a visionary project intended to accurately reproduce the 3-day Battle of Gettysburg in a virtual world for multidisciplinary uses.


About Fashion Research Institute, Inc.: The Fashion Research Institute is at the forefront of developing innovative design & merchandising solutions for the apparel industry.  They research and develop products and systems for the fashion industry that sweepingly address wasteful business and production practices. Shenlei Winkler’s work spans both couture and mass-market design and development for the real life apparel industry. A successful designer, her lifetime sales of her real life apparel designs have now reached more than $70 million USD, with more than 25 million-dollar styles in her portfolio. Her couture work has appeared extensively on stage and movie screen.